May 14, 2011

Origin of the domestic cat

Filed under: Cats care — Tags: , , , , — Cynara @ 3:29 pm

catThe domestic cats today are an evolutionary adaptation of the African wild cats, what does with that these possess several characteristics in common with the great wild felines, as the habit of walking using their cushions quietly plant, the technical assaults of hunt and them presence of retractable nails. However, crossings among different specimens turned them smaller and less aggressive, assisting like this to the objective of creating an small animal, capable to hunt rodents and to live in the same houses that the men. 
His older one ancestral known it is Miacis, mammal that lived there are about 40 million years and it possessed the habit of walking on the branches of the trees. The evolution of that animal created Dinictis, animal that already possessed most of the present characteristics in the current felines. 

The sub-family Felinae, that contains the domestic cats, appeared there are about 12 million years, expanding the starting from Africa until reaching the lands where now it is Egypt. Besides, they were the Egyptians the first people to adopt the cats as work animals and estimate. 
When the populations stopped being nomadic, the people’s life started to depend substantially of the agriculture. It was on that moment that the cats came to do part of the daily of the human being. For possessing a fort instinct hunter, those animals exercised an important function in the society: to end with the mice that invaded the silos of cereals and other places where the foods were stored. 
However, it didn’t delay so that some animals were transported secretly for other territories, doing with that the cats ended up increasing his inclusion area. When they arrived in old Persia, they also passed to be worshipped. There was the faith that when you mistreated a black cat, you took the risk of being mistreating a spirit friend, especially created to do company to the man during his passage in the Earth. This way, when harming a cat, the man would be reaching himself. 
In the course of time the cats passed to be considered fine animals, winning a good position of the social point of view. They were used besides as accessories in social events for the ladies. In that time the cat began to be modified for exhibitions, beginning like this the creation of pure races, with pedigree. One of the first races created for that purpose was the Persian, that it was known after his introduction in the European continent, accomplished by the Italian traveler Pietro Della Valle. 
The great first exhibition of cats happened in 1871, in London. To leave of that moment, the interest in exposing cats developed inside of standard rights spread for the whole Europe. 
Nowadays, the cats are one of the most popular mascots all over the world, serving the man as a good company animal and they still continue being used by farmers and navigators of several countries, as a cheap middle of controlling the population certain rodents. Due to the fact of his domestication to be relatively recent, when necessary, they easily can convert to the wild life, starting to live in wild atmospheres, where they form small colonies and they hunt together.  
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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May 8, 2011

The origin of the domestic dog

Filed under: Dogs care — Tags: , , , , — Cynara @ 9:31 am

wolfFrom his origin the dog is submitted to the natural selection, through the adaptation to the environment and the artificial selection, through the human beings. 
In the beginning of the domestication, the human beings conserved those encourage less aggressive and less withdrawn, probably selecting those with morphologic characteristics that differed of the wild specimen, fact that it might have made possible the great morphologic variety found in the domestic dogs nowadays. 
The domestic dog has the wolf as ancestral. Specimen of that species were, along the time, being selected for several aptitudes, being today, an animal with larger potential of social cognition that the wild wolves, standing out even of great primates in certain tasks that depend on the reading of human corporal signs. 
The first associations between men and dogs were found in China and they remount there are 150.000 years. There are about 10.000 years, when leaving of being nomadic and hunter to be producing and creator of his food, the man needed to tame the ancestral of the dog to aid him in the hunt and, later, in the care of the cattle. 
The fixation of the racial patterns only appeared starting from the Century XVI for the hunt dogs and it continued along the centuries. 
The races are fruit of natural selection, artificial selection and of the crossing among animals of different patterns. The recognition of the races depends on the people’s organization that create the dogs in associations or clubs, us which their members establish morphologic patterns and behaviors. 
Among animals of the same race different lineages can exist, that they are developed by the creators starting from the selection.  
Source: CFMV 
Vet Therapy – Dra. Cynara Campanati 

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April 24, 2011

Behavior of the adult dog

Filed under: Dogs care — Tags: , , , , — Cynara @ 9:01 am

dogThe adult dog behaves with more seriousness. It is a phase in that he likes and he needs exercises in order to guarantee a healthy old age.  
Veterinarians cares and good feeding are fundamental taken care, however to know the behavior of the adult animal will avoid some insipidities. 
The adult dogs tend to have a hierarchical control, be with others encourage or the owners. He controls the occupation of the space and the individuals’ of the group movement. 
Be attentive the alterations of behavior common to the adult dogs: 
1 – aggression: she can be predator (animal fed inadequately, he is starving), hierarchal (it usually happens inside of house when the animal tries to assume the domination of the territory), territorial (common in the families where the owners don’t delimit the hierarchy, they attack any individual that inside their territory) or for fear (it happens when the animal is threatened and without the escape possibility). 
2 – submission: animals that divert the glance, are avoids, they live with the lowered tail. 
3 – territory demarcation: the dog delimits his territory through urine or feces, showing his hierarchy inside of house. 
4 – sexual behavior: the animals that present dominant behavior will assume the posture of trying to couple with their proprietors. 
Be attentive in order to correct the problems that appear, aggression doesn’t help. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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April 10, 2011

Adolescent dogs

Filed under: Dogs care — Tags: , , , — Cynara @ 9:18 am

dogSimilar to the human beings, the adolescence of the dogs is a time of a lot of energy, discoveries, persistence in disapproven behaviors, that he needs training (education). Before that, exercises are fundamental.  
Not always it is possible to be beside the dog, to avoid problems, the owner can use some tactics.  
1-to leave old clothes with the owner’s smell does with that the animal calms down and be relaxed while it is alone. 
2-you can catch a bottle, to do some holes and to put dog food inside, the dog will pass from within hours trying to remove the grains of the bottle. 
3-offer toys to the animal so that he can extravasate the energy. 
4-offer bones or something chewable, that avoids that he bites the forbidden objects of the house. 
5-hide tidbits for the house; that trick stimulates the dog to seek for the tidbit when he is not making anything. 
Activity, that is the key word. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati

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March 27, 2011

Psychological pregnancy, a common problem

Filed under: You knew that... — Tags: , , , , , , — Cynara @ 9:02 am

nestlingThe psychological pregnancy in dogs is more common than thinks she, happens in more than 50% of female dogs no castrated. Besides the psychological alterations, she causes physical alterations also. 
It happens due to hormonal alterations capable to influence the behavior and the development of mammary tissues. That happens when there is a fall of the hormone progesterone, present in the rut. When the female dog is to give birththe progesterone level falls, what stimulates the production of the prolactin, that acts in the mammary tissue activating the production of milk and causing the maternal behavior. 
It is common the female dogs present the psychological pregnancy after the castration, if accomplished up to 3 months after the beginning of the rut. With the retreat of the ovaries, responsible for the progesterone production, there are interruption of the production of that hormone and liberation of the prolactin. 
The signs of the psychological pregnancy are: the animal scrapes the corners of the house; he protects an area or object; he is anxious or crying and appetite lack. 
To interrupt that behavior it can be used medicines that inhibit the prolactin production. They make to interrupt the production of milk and the maternal behavior quickly. Otherwise, the pregnancy finish in 2 weeks. 
To remove the objects that the animal adopted as nestling during that period can increase the anxiety and to stimulate compulsive behaviors or until turning him aggressive. 
The increase of the mammas is normal and the produced milk ends being absorbed by the organism, but it sometimes happens inflammation of the mammary glands, appearing pits, pain and red skin. Therefore, consulting a veterinarian. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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March 20, 2011

Nestling life

Filed under: You knew that... — Tags: , , , , , — Cynara @ 9:28 am

puppyThe arrival of the nestling is awaits always with a lot of expectation, because a new member of the family will divide the routine of the day by day. 
For that coexistence to work, some basic cares are essential and they should already begin in the first days. 
In first place it should be known that the nestlings are full of energy. They discover the world through the sense of smell. They are curious and they need to take advantage of this phase to explore the atmosphere and to have fun. In this phase they are fragile and vulnerable what demands patience and dedication. 
It is natural that the nestling cry in the first nights. If you don’t want the adult dog to sleep in the bed, don’t leave the nestling to sleep. At the most, put him in a bed beside yours. Another option is to catch a cloth and when you will look for him, scrub that cloth in the mother of the nestling to catch her smell. The night, put the cloth in the bed of the nestling, he will feel safer feeling the mother’s smell. 
Teach the norms of the house early, because the dog will owe accustom to your routine. 
Offer specific food. The portions should be ingested as soon as served. Don’t leave the exposed meal for more than 30 minutes, because it destroys and  becomes a middle of proliferation of bacteria. Habituate the animal to eat when it is served. 
The bath should be made with warm water and specific shampoo. The animal should totally be dry, use a dryer of hair. To avoid the entrance of water in the ears, put cotton inside of them. 
The nestling should make their needs in newspaper leaves or hygienic rug. You should teach him to go in the right place. As soon as wakes up, the nestling will urinate, then take him to the right place and wait. When he urinates, caress him and demonstrate that you liked. With the feces the procedure is the same. Therefore after his meal, the nestling will defecate, for that it takes him until the right place and await, when he defecates, act in the same way, caress him. 
Provide toys for the nestling and don’t motivate aggressive games. After the vaccinations he will be capable to leave in the street. Use leash for walking with him. Don’t leave him free in the street to avoid accidents. 
Don’t leave to the reach of the nestling sharp objects that he can get hurt or to swallow, remove poisonous materials (products of cleaning, plants, etc) of places where he has access. Don’t leave the open street door. 
Consult the veterinarian to know the calendar of vaccines and vermifuge that the nestling needs. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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March 14, 2011

Scottish Terrier, a loyalist companion

Filed under: Breed dogs — Tags: , , , , — Cynara @ 4:48 pm

scottish terrierScottish Terrier is original of Scotland. He was used as hunter of rodents in the coal mines of Great Britain. Therefore the hair of the snout are longer, to protect them of bitten of the preys. 
The race conquered admirers more and more for the world. The bravery, loyalty, agility and intelligence are the great prominences of that nice dog, because it gets to be valiant without being aggressive. 
It is always alert and although he is good hunter, he adores games. 
It is very affectionate with their owners, however his patience with other animals is limited and he needs a good adaptation. 
For being a dog full of energy, if you want to have one remember, physical activity is indispensable. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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March 5, 2011

Ant, more than a curse

Filed under: Animal news — Tags: , , , , — Cynara @ 1:30 pm

antThe red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), very common in Brazil, it is one of the main invaders curses in the world. 
An article published in the magazine Science shows that the ant moves among countries and promotes a true world invasion. 
She is native of South America, but there is one century moved for the continent and it arrived to the south of the United States, where she settled down. 
The small ant cause a grandiose economical impact in the United States. There the curse gives a damage of US$ 6 billion a year. 
The ant affect local communities of insects, promoting ecological unbalance and favoring the development of noxious organisms to the agriculture. 
They also can, to cause damages to electronic equipments, because the nests can be housed inside of them. In those cases, they can gnaw the electric threads and to cause short circuits. 
They can still cause allergies and anaphylactic shock in people and animals sensitive to her poison. 
As everything, the ant also have her beneficial side. She promote the aeration of the soil, she incorporate nutritious to the soil, she pollinate plants, she is efficient predator of other insects, she manipulate seeds for her feeding promoting the germination of some species of plants. 
Source: Newspaper Gazeta  
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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February 20, 2011

Cares with the ears of the dogs

Filed under: Animal news — Tags: , , , , , , — Cynara @ 9:26 am

otitis_externaOne of the most common problems in the dogs is the otitis externa. Different from the people, the dogs have very long ear canal and the shape in “L” hinders the visualization of the canal without the otoscope. 
The format in “L” of the canal also hinders the exit of the water as she enters in the ear of the animal, causing infection and irritation. The dogs with pendulous ears, it creates a warm atmosphere, favorable for the growth of bacteria. 
It is important to examine the ears of the animal to see if there are irritation or excessive formation if secretion. Secretion discharges are inflammation sign. 
When giving bath in the animal, always put cotton in the ears to avoid that the water enters in the ear canal. And after the bath, dry the ears well. 
Be more attentive to the dogs with pendulous ears, if the dog scratches the ears insistently or feels pain when being played in the area.    
Make the cleaning of the ears with cotton and products adapted weekly. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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February 12, 2011

Knowing West Highland White Terrier

Filed under: Breed dogs — Tags: , , , , , — Cynara @ 6:02 pm

west highland white terrierThe origin of the race West Highland White Terrier is a little controversial, but the theory more it accepts is that they are descending of old Terries of Scotland, especially of Cairn Terrier.  
Some historians still attribute the development to Colonel Edward Donald Malcom that, while it hunted, it would have gotten right for his mistake favorite dog. 
After this accident, the Colonel was very shaky and he began being devoted to the creation of white dogs, for not running the risk of confusing, again, their followers companions with the hunt.  
The mission of the dogs during the hunt was outside the one of to enter in the burrows and to drive away the prey. 
The animals of that race have a cheerful temperament, they are full of energy and they are disposed always for a good game or walk, but it doesn’t confuse that with hyperactivity. They are obedient and used not to have aggressive and destructive, same behaviors being origin hunter’s dogs. 
In the requirement adaptation with others, they need to know from small the other animal, because the hunt instinct is well sharpened. 
They are excellent companions, they adore to be close to the owners and to accompany them for the house and they need exercise, at least twice a day, be through games or walks. 
To maintain the pelage and the hygiene of the animal is recommended shears it every 2 months and bath to each 15 or 20 days. It is important to maintain them brushed. 
Vet Therapy – Dr. Cynara Campanati 

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